Messianic Apologetics
*As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

Recommended Resources

Bar, Eitan. Refuting Rabbinic Objections to Christianity & Messianic Prophecies (One for Israel Ministry, 2019).

Bateman IV, Herbert W., Darrell L. Bock, and Gordon H. Johnston. Jesus the Messiah: Tracing the Promises, Expectations, and Coming of Israel’s King (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2012).

Bock, Darrell L., and Mitch Glaser. The Gospel According to Isaiah 53: Encountering the Suffering Servant in Jewish and Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2012).

Brown, Michael L. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus: General and Historical Objections (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000).

________________. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus, Volume 2: Theological Objections (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000).

________________. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus, Volume 3: Messianic Prophecy Objections (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2003).

________________. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus, Volume 4: New Testament Objections (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2007).

________________. Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus, Volume 5: Traditional Jewish Objections (San Francisco, CA: Purple Pomegranate Productions, 2009).

Chernoff, David. Yeshua the Messiah (Havertown, PA: Kesher Ministries International, 1983).

Glaser, Mitch. Isaiah 53 Explained (New York: Chosen People Productions, 2010).

Kaiser, Walter C. The Messiah in the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995).

Rydelnik, Michael. The Messianic Hope: Is the Hebrew Bible Messianic? (Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 2010).

Rydelnik, Michael, and Edwin Blum, gen. eds. The Moody Handbook of Messianic Prophecy: Studies and Expositions of the Messiah in the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody, 2019).

Wright, Christopher J.H. Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 1992).


The sequel volumes Salvation on the Line, Volume III: The Messiahship of Yeshua–Tanach and Salvation on the Line, Volume IV: The Messiahship of Yeshua–Apostolic Scriptures, are presently being researched. However, given the severe importance of the issue of the Messiahship of Yeshua for today’s Messianic movement, we are pleased to offer excerpts from these forthcoming works, in this section of our website. Bible passages that we will be addressing are listed below, with periodic updates being made.


All Articles–>Messiahship of Yeshua are downloadable in PDF format

Approaching the Messiahship of Yeshua of Nazareth

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 1:1, 26-27

“When God began to create heaven and earth…And God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. They shall rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the cattle, the whole earth, and all the creeping things that creep on earth.’ And God created man in His image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 3:15

“I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; they shall strike at your head, and you shall strike at their heel” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 3:22-24

“And the LORD God said, ‘Now that the man has become like one of us, knowing good and bad, what if he should stretch out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever!’ So the LORD God banished him from the garden of Eden, to till the soil from which he was taken. He drove the man out, and stationed east of the garden of Eden the cherubim and the fiery ever-turning sword, to guard the way to the tree of life” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 4:1

“Now the man knew his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, ‘I have gained a male child with the help of the LORD’” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 5:21-29

“When Enoch had lived 65 years, he begot Methuselah. After the birth of Methuselah, Enoch walked with God 300 years; and he begot sons and daughters. All the days of Enoch came to 365 years. Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, for God took him. When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he begot Lamech. After the birth of Lamech, Methuselah lived 782 years and begot sons and daughters. All the days of Methuselah came to 969 years; then he died. When Lamech had lived 182 years, he begot a son. And he named him Noah, saying, ‘This one will provide us relief from our work and from the toil of our hands, out of the very soil which the LORD placed under a curse’” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 6:1-4

“When men began to increase on earth and daughters were born to them, the divine beings saw how beautiful the daughters of men were and took wives from among those that pleased them. – The LORD said, ‘My breath shall not abide in man forever, since he too is flesh; let the days allowed him be one hundred and twenty years.’ – It was then, and later too, that the Nephilim appeared on earth – when the divine beings cohabited with the daughters of men, who bore them offspring. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown” (NJPS).

reproduced from the forthcoming Salvation on the Line, Volume III

posted 03 October, 2019


Genesis 9:25-27

“he said, ‘Cursed be Canaan; The lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothers.’ And he said, ‘Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; let Canaan be a slave to them. May God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be a slave to them’” (NJPS).

Genesis 12:1-3; 22:18

“The LORD said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your native land and from your father’s house to the land that I will show you. I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you and curse him that curses you; and all the families of the earth shall bless themselves by you’” (Genesis 12:1-3, NJPS).
All the nations of the earth shall bless themselves by your descendants, because you have obeyed My command” (Genesis 22:18, NJPS).

Genesis 17:7, 9-10; Leviticus 26:44-45; Deuteronomy 4:27; 7:6-9, 12; Isaiah 54:10, 17; 59:21; Jeremiah 46:27-28; Malachi 3:6

“‘I will maintain My covenant between Me and you, and your offspring to come, as an everlasting covenant throughout the ages, to be God to you and to your offspring to come’…God further said to Abraham, ‘As for you, you and your offspring to come throughout the ages shall keep My covenant. Such shall be the covenant between Me and you and your offspring to follow which you shall keep: every male among you shall be circumcised’” (Genesis 17:7, 9-10, NJPS).
“Yet, even then, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not reject them or spurn them so as to destroy them, annulling My covenant with them: for I the LORD am their God. I will remember in their favor the covenant with the ancients, whom I freed from the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations to be their God: I, the LORD” (Leviticus 26:44-45, NJPS).
“The LORD will scatter you among the peoples, and only a scant few of you shall be left among the nations to which the LORD will drive you” (Deuteronomy 4:27, NJPS).
“For you are a people consecrated to the LORD your God: of all the peoples on earth the LORD your God chose you to be His treasured people. It is not because you are the most numerous of peoples that the LORD set His heart on you and chose you—indeed, you are the smallest of peoples; but it was because the LORD favored you and kept the oath He made to your fathers that the LORD freed you with a mighty hand and rescued you from the house of bondage, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt. Know, therefore, that only the LORD your God is God, the steadfast God who keeps His covenant faithfully to the thousandth generation of those who love Him and keep His commandments…And if you do obey these rules and observe them carefully, the LORD your God will maintain faithfully for you the covenant that He made on oath with your fathers” (Deuteronomy 7:6-9, 12, NJPS).
“For the mountains may move and the hills be shaken, but my loyalty shall never move from you, nor My covenant of friendship be shaken—said the LORD, who takes you back in love…No weapon formed against you shall succeed, and every tongue that contends with you at law you shall defeat. such is the lot of the servants of the LORD, such their triumph through Me—declares the LORD” (Isaiah 54:10, NJPS).
“And this shall be My covenant with them, said the LORD: My spirit which is upon you, and the words which I have placed in your mouth, shall not be absent from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your children, nor from the mouth of your children’s children—said the LORD—from now on, for all time” (Isaiah 59:21, NJPS).
“But you, have no fear, My servant Jacob, be not dismayed, O Israel! I will deliver you from far away, your folk from their land of captivity; and Jacob again shall have calm and quiet, with none to trouble him. But you, have no fear, my servant Jacob—declares the LORD—for I am with you. I will make an end of all the nations among which I have banished you, but I will not make an end of you! I will not leave you unpunished, but I will chastise you in measure” (Jeremiah 46:27-28, NJPS).
“For I am the LORD—I have not changed; and you are the children of Jacob—you have not ceased to be” (Malachi 3:6, NJPS).

Genesis 42:7-8

“When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them; but he acted like a stranger toward them and spoke harshly to them. He asked them, ‘Where do you come from?’ And they said, ‘From the land of Canaan, to procure food.’ For though Joseph recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him” (NJPS).

Genesis 49:8-12

“You, O Judah, your brothers shall praise; your hand shall be on the nape of your foes; your father’s sons shall bow low to you. Judah is a lion’s whelp; on prey, my son, have you grown. He crouches, lies down like a lion, like the king of beasts—who dare rouse him? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet; so that tribute shall come to him and the homage of peoples be his. He tethers his ass to a vine, his ass’s foal to a choice vine; he washes his garment in wine, his robe in blood of grapes. His eyes are darker than wine; his teeth are whiter than milk” (NJPS).

Exodus 4:22; Hosea 11:1-2

Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD: Israel is My first-born son’” (Exodus 4:22, NJPS).
I fell in love with Israel when he was still a child; and I have called [him] My son ever since Egypt. Thus were they called, but they went their own way; they sacrifice to Baalim and offer to carved images” (Hosea 11:1-2, NJPS).

Exodus 12:21-23; 24:5-8; 30:12-16; Leviticus 4:27-31; 5:11-16; 16:14-16, 18-19; 17:11-13; Numbers 15:27; 17:11-13[16:46-48]; 31:48-50

Moses then summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, ‘Go, pick out lambs for your families, and slaughter the passover offering. Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and apply some of the blood that is in the basin to the lintel and to the two doorposts. None of you shall go outside the door of his house until morning. For when the LORD goes through to smite the Egyptians, He will see the blood on the lintel and the two doorposts, and the LORD will pass over the door and not let the Destroyer enter and smite your home’” (Exodus 12:21-23, NJPS).
He designated some young men among the Israelites, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed bulls as offerings of well-being to the LORD. Moses took one part of the blood and put it in basins, and the other part of the blood he dashed against the altar. Then he took the record of the covenant and read it aloud to the people. And they said, ‘All that the Lord has spoken we will faithfully do!’ Moses took the blood and dashed it on the people and said, ‘This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD now makes with you concerning all these commands’” (Exodus 24:5-8, NJPS).
When you take a census of the Israelite people according to their enrollment, each shall pay the LORD a ransom for himself on being enrolled, that no plague may come upon them through their being enrolled. This is what everyone who is entered in the records shall pay: a half-shekel by the sanctuary weight—twenty gerahs to the shekel—a half-shekel as an offering to the LORD. Everyone who is entered in the records, from the age of twenty years up, shall give the LORD‘s offering: the rich shall not pay more and the poor shall not pay less than half a shekel when giving the LORD‘s offering as expiation for your persons. You shall take the expiation money from the Israelites and assign it to the service of the Tent of Meeting; it shall serve the Israelites as a reminder before the LORD, as expiation for your persons” (Exodus 30:12-16, NJPS).
“If any person from among the populace unwittingly incurs guilt by doing any of the things which by the LORD’s commandments ought not to be done, and he realizes his guilt—or the sin of which he is guilty is brought to his knowledge—he shall bring a female goat without blemish as his offering for the sin of which he is guilty. He shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and the sin offering shall be slaughtered at the place of the burnt offering. The priest shall take with his finger some of its blood and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering; and all the rest of its blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar. He shall remove all its fat, just as the fat is removed from the sacrifice of well-being; and the priest shall turn it into smoke on the altar, for a pleasing odor to the LORD. Thus the priest shall make expiation for him, and he shall be forgiven” (Leviticus 4:27-31, NJPS).
“And if his means do not suffice for two turtledoves or two pigeons, he shall bring as his offering for that of which he is guilty a tenth of an ephah of choice flour for a sin offering; he shall not add oil to it or lay frankincense on it, for it is a sin offering. He shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall scoop out of it a handful as a token portion of it and turn it into smoke on the altar, with the LORD’s offerings by fire; it is a sin offering. Thus the priest shall make expiation on his behalf for whichever of these sins he is guilty, and he shall be forgiven. It shall belong to the priest, like the meal offering. And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: When a person commits a trespass, being unwittingly remiss about any of the LORD’s sacred things, he shall bring as his penalty to the LORD a ram without blemish from the flock, convertible into payment in silver by the sanctuary weight, as a guilt offering. He shall make restitution for that wherein he was remiss about the sacred things, and he shall add a fifth part to it and give it to the priest. The priest shall make expiation on his behalf with the ram of the guilt offering, and he shall be forgiven” (Leviticus 5:11-16, NJPS).
“He shall take some of the blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his finger over the cover on the east side; and in front of the cover he shall sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times. He shall then slaughter the people’s goat of sin offering, bring its blood behind the curtain, and do with its blood as he has done with the blood of the bull: he shall sprinkle it over the cover and in front of the cover…he shall go out to the altar that is before the LORD and purge it: he shall take some of the blood of the bull and of the goat and apply it to each of the horns of the altar; and the rest of the blood he shall sprinkle on it with his finger seven times. Thus he shall cleanse it of the uncleanness of the Israelites and consecrate it” (Leviticus 16:14-16, 18-19, NJPS).
“For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have assigned it to you for making expiation for your lives upon the altar; it is the blood, as life, that effects expiation. Therefore I say to the Israelite people: No person among you shall partake of blood, nor shall the stranger who resides among you partake of blood. And if any Israelite or any stranger who resides among them hunts down an animal or a bird that may be eaten, he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth” (Leviticus 17:11-13, NJPS).
“In case it is an individual who has sinned unwittingly, he shall offer a she-goat in its first year as a sin offering” (Numbers 15:27, NJPS).
“Then Moses said to Aaron, ‘Take the fire pan, and put on it fire from the altar. Add incense and take it quickly to the community and make expiation for them. For wrath has gone forth from the LORD: the plague has begun!’ Aaron took it, as Moses had ordered, and ran to the midst of the congregation, where the plague had begun among the people. He put on the incense and made expiation for the people; he stood between the dead and the living until the plague was checked” (Numbers 17:11-13[16:46-48], NJPS).
“The commanders of the troop divisions, the officers of thousands and the officers of hundreds, approached Moses. They said to Moses, ‘Your servants have made a check of the warriors in our charge, and not one of us is missing. So we have brought as an offering to the LORD such articles of gold as each of us came upon: armlets, bracelets, signet rings, earrings, and pendants, that expiation may be made for our persons before the LORD’” (Numbers 31:48-50, NJPS).

Exodus 19:16-20

On the third day, as morning dawned, there was thunder, and lightning, and a dense cloud upon the mountain, and a very loud blast of the horn; and all the people who were in the camp trembled. Moses led the people out of the camp toward God, and they took their places at the foot of the mountain. Now Mount Sinai was all in smoke, for the LORD had come down upon it in fire; the smoke rose like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain trembled violently. The blare of the horn grew louder and louder. As Moses spoke, God answered him in thunder. The LORD came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain, and the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain and Moses went up” (NJPS).

Exodus 32:32-35

“‘Now, if You will forgive their sin [well and good]; but if not, erase me from the record which You have written!’ But the LORD said to Moses, ‘He who has sinned against Me, him only will I erase from My record. Go now, lead the people where I told you. See, My angel shall go before you. But when I make an accounting, I will bring them to account for their sins.’ Then the LORD sent a plague upon the people, for what they did with the calf that Aaron made” (NJPS).

Leviticus 17:11

For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have assigned it to you for making expiation for your lives upon the altar; it is the blood, as life, that effects expiation” (NJPS).

Leviticus 18:4

My rules alone shall you observe, and faithfully follow My laws: I the LORD am your God” (NJPS).

Leviticus 20:26

“You shall be holy to Me, for I the LORD am holy, and I have set you apart from other peoples to be Mine” (NJPS).

Leviticus 26:44; Deuteronomy 4:31

“Yet, even then, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not reject them or spurn them so as to destroy them, annulling My covenant with them: for I the LORD am their God” (Leviticus 26:44, NJPS).
“For the LORD your God is a compassionate God: He will not fail you nor will He let you perish; He will not forget the covenant which He made on oath with your fathers” (Deuteronomy 4:31, NJPS).

Leviticus 26:46

“These are the laws, rules, and instructions that the LORD established, through Moses on Mount Sinai, between Himself and the Israelite people” (NJPS).

Numbers 15:30

“But the person, be he citizen or stranger, who acts defiantly reviles the LORD; that person shall be cut off from among his people” (NJPS).

Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:29; Hosea 11:9; Psalm 146:3

“God is not man to be capricious, or mortal to change His mind. Would He speak and not act, promise and not fulfill?” (Numbers 23:19, NJPS).
“Moreover, the Glory of Israel does not deceive or change His mind, for He is not human that He should change His mind” (1 Samuel 15:29, NJPS).
“I will not act on My wrath, will not turn to destroy Ephraim. For I am God, not man, the Holy One in your midst: I will not come in fury” (Hosea 11:9, NJPS).
“Put not your trust in the great, in mortal man who cannot save” (Psalm 146:3, NJPS).

Numbers 24:7

“Their boughs drip with moisture, their roots have abundant water. Their king shall rise above Agag, their kingdom shall be exalted” (NJPS).

Numbers 24:15-19

“He took up his theme, and said: Word of Balaam son of Beor, word of the man whose eye is true, word of him who hears God’s speech, who obtains knowledge from the Most High, and beholds visions from the Almighty, prostrate, but with eyes unveiled: What I see for them is not yet, what I behold will not be soon: A star rises from Jacob, a scepter comes forth from Israel; it smashes the brow of Moab, the foundation of all children of Seth. Edom becomes a possession, yea, seir a possession of its enemies; but Israel is triumphant. A victor issues from Jacob to wipe out what is left of Ir” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 4:2; 13:1

You shall not add anything to what I command you or take anything away from it, but keep the commandments of the Lord your God that I enjoin upon you(Deuteronomy 4:2, NJPS). 
Be careful to observe only that which I enjoin upon you: neither add to it nor take away from it” (Deuteronomy 13:1, NJPS).

Deuteronomy 4:15-16

“For your own sake, therefore, be most careful—since you saw no shape when the LORD your God spoke to you at Horeb out of the fire—not to act wickedly and make for yourselves a sculptured image in any likeness whatever: the form of a man or a woman” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 4:39; 32:39; 2 Kings 19:19 1 Chronicles 17:20; Isaiah 44:6; 45:5-6

“Know therefore this day and keep in mind that the LORD alone is God in heaven above and on earth below; there is no other” (Deuteronomy 4:39, NJPS).
“See, then, that I, I am He; there is no god beside Me. I deal death and give life; I wounded and I will heal: None can deliver from My hand” (Deuteronomy 32:39, NJPS).
“He set out from there and came upon Elisha son of Shaphat as he was plowing. There were twelve yoke of oxen ahead of him, and he was with the twelfth. Elijah came over to him and threw his mantle over him” (1 Kings 19:19, NJPS).
“O LORD, there is none like You, and there is no other God but You, as we have always heard” (1 Chronicles 17:20, NJPS).
“Thus said the LORD, the King of Israel, their Redeemer, the LORD of Hosts: I am the first and I am the last, and there is no god but Me” (Isaiah 44:6, NJPS).
“I am the LORD and there is none else; beside Me, there is no god. I engird you, though you have not known Me, so that they may know, from east to west, that there is none but Me. I am the LORD and there is none else” (Isaiah 45:5-6, NJPS).

Deuteronomy 4:15-16

When, in time to come, your children ask you, ‘What mean the decrees, laws, and rules that the Lord our God has enjoined upon you?’ you shall say to your children, ‘We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt and the Lord freed us from Egypt with a mighty hand. The Lord wrought before our eyes marvelous and destructive signs and portents in Egypt, against Pharaoh and all his household; and us He freed from there, that He might take us and give us the land that He had promised on oath to our fathers. Then the Lord commanded us to observe all these laws, to revere the Lord our God, for our lasting good and for our survival, as is now the case. It will be therefore to our merit before the Lord our God to observe faithfully this whole Instruction, as He has commanded us’” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 12:30-31

beware of being lured into their ways after they have been wiped out before you! Do not inquire about their gods, saying, ‘How did those nations worship their gods? I too will follow those practices.’ You shall not act thus toward the LORD your God, for they perform for their gods every abhorrent act that the LORD detests; they even offer up their sons and daughters in fire to their gods” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 13:2-6

“If there appears among you a prophet or a dream-diviner and he gives you a sign or a portent, saying, ‘Let us follow and worship another god’—whom you have not experienced—even if the sign or portent that he named to you comes true, do not heed the words of that prophet or that dream-diviner. For the LORD your God is testing you to see whether you really love the LORD your God with all your heart and soul. Follow none but the LORD your God, and revere none but Him; observe His commandments alone, and heed only His orders; worship none but Him, and hold fast to Him. As for that prophet or dream-diviner, he shall be put to death; for he urged disloyalty to the LORD your God—who freed you from the land of Egypt and who redeemed you from the house of bondage—to make you stray from the path that the LORD your God commanded you to follow. Thus you will sweep out evil from your midst” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 17:8-13

“When, in time to come, your children ask you, ‘What mean the decrees, laws, and rules that the LORD our God has enjoined upon you?’ you shall say to your children, ‘We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt and the LORD freed us from Egypt with a mighty hand. The LORD wrought before our eyes marvelous and destructive signs and portents in Egypt, against Pharaoh and all his household; and us He freed from there, that He might take us and give us the land that He had promised on oath to our fathers. Then the LORD commanded us to observe all these laws, to revere the LORD our God, for our lasting good and for our survival, as is now the case. It will be therefore to our merit before the LORD our God to observe faithfully this whole Instruction, as He has commanded us’” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 18:15, 18

“The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet from among your own people, like myself; him you shall heed…I will raise up a prophet for them from among their own people, like yourself: I will put My words in his mouth and he will speak to them all that I command him” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 24:1

A man takes a wife and possesses her. She fails to please him because he finds something obnoxious about her, and he writes her a bill of divorcement, hands it to her, and sends her away from his house” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 24:16

“Parents shall not be put to death for children, nor children be put to death for parents: a person shall be put to death only for his own crime” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 28:46

“They shall serve as signs and proofs against you and your offspring for all time” (NJPS).

Deuteronomy 30:15-19

“See, I set before you this day life and prosperity, death and adversity. For I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments, His laws, and His rules, that you may thrive and increase, and that the LORD your God may bless you in the land that you are about to enter and possess. But if your heart turns away and you give no heed, and are lured into the worship and service of other gods, I declare to you this day that you shall certainly perish; you shall not long endure on the soil that you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day: I have put before you life and death, blessing and curse. Choose life—if you and your offspring would live—” (NJPS).