Thank you for your interest in Messianic Apologetics. We imagine that some of you have questions in regard to the Messianic movement, the issues of the day, and some of the views expressed on this website. Below are answers to some of questions that we frequently receive.

FAQ entries are listed in alphabetical order. Many entries have an associated video or audio podcast.


Abomination of Desolation

Acts 8:27, 36, 38

Acts 15:19-21

Afterlife, negates need for resurrection

Afterlife, negates significance of death


Alef-Tav, Yeshua as the

Annihilationism (eternal punishment)


Antimessiah, Makes or Confirms Agreement

Anti-Semitism, Luther


Apocrypha, Versions of

Aramaic Peshitta




Bible Versions

Bible Versions, Messianic

Biblical Calendar

Biblical Faith, a Judaism

Biblical Festivals

Birth Control

Birth of Yeshua

Body-Brain-Consciousness Interaction

Breath of life, humans and animals

B’rit Chadashah


Calvinist-Arminian Controversy


Chanukah, Actions of Antiochus

Chanukah, Celebrated instead of Sukkot

Chanukah, Eight Days of Oil

Chanukah, Nine-Branched Menorah

Cheese, Kosher

Christian, Title

Christianity, Pagan?

Christian Scholars

Christians who do not keep Torah


Christmas Dinner

Church Fathers

Church, missing after Revelation 4:1

Church, word of pagan origin


Cock/Rooster Crowing audio

Colossians 2:14 audio/video

Commonwealth of Israel

Communion audio

Concubines audio

Conspiracy Theories audio

1 Corinthians 6:9-10 audio/video

1 Corinthians 6:12 audio

1 Corinthians 7:17-24 audio/video

1 Corinthians 10:23 audio/video

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 audio

2 Corinthians 5:8 audio/video

Creationism audio

Crucifixion audio

Cult audio


Daniel 3:25 audio

Death, as an unconscious sleep audio

Death, for Believers audio/video

Denying Messiah audio

Deuteronomy 6:25 audio

Dictionaries/Lexicons audio

Dietary Laws, Kosher audio

Doctors, and Modern Medicine audio

Dreams and Visions audio

Dualism audio


Easter audio (new)

Egalitarianism, Leads to an Acceptance of Homosexuality

Ekklēsia/Qahal (English word “church”)

Elements of the World (Galatians 4:3, 9; Colossians 2:8, 20)

End-Times Revival

Ephesians 2:14-15 audio

Ephesians 6:11-17 audio

Eternal life, physically alive forever audio

Exodus, date of

Exodus, numbers of

Exodus, Pharaoh who did not know Joseph

Exodus, route of

Extra-Biblical Literature


False Prophecy Predictions

Fasting audio

Final Generation

Fire Baptism

Fruits and Vegetables, Kosher audio


Galatians 3:24, 25 audio

Galatians 5:2-3 audio

Gelatin, Kosher audio

Genesis 5, 11 Genealogies

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), Kosher audio

Gentile, Term

Glatt Kosher audio

God-Fearers audio

God & Lord, Pagan Titles

Good Fish, Bad Fish (Kosher) audio


Halal Meat (Islam) audio


Headcovering Garments

Heaven, prayer covering offered by deceased loved ones audio

Hebrew, Letter Pictures

Hebrew, Pure Language

Hebrew Versus Greek Mindset

Hebrews 9:1-5 audio

Hell, Metaphorical View audio

Heresy, Heretic

Hour of Testing

Hunting audio


Illegal Drugs (Kosher) audio

Image of God, Human Beings audio

Image of God, Rulership audio

Isaac, Sacrificed

Isaiah 7:14

Isaiah 24:5 audio


James, Name of

Jashar, Book of

JEDP Hypothesis

Jesus, Pagan Name

Jewish Marriage Analogy

Jots and Tittles



Karaites, Karaite Judaism


Law of Moses, Binding on Christians video

Least in the Kingdom

Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees

Leavening Agents audio (new)

Levirate Marriage

Leviticus 18:5

Liturgy, Hebrew

Lord’s Day (Revelation 1:10)

Lost Sheep of the House of Israel

Luke 16:19-31 audio

Lunar Sabbath audio


Male Headship audio

Mark of the Beast

Matthew 5:17-19 audio/video

Matthew 10:28 audio

Matthew 16:18-19

Messiah, Confirms the Covenant


Mixed Fibers

Moses, Write the Entire Torah?

Mushrooms, Kosher audio


Nazarene, Yeshua Called


New Moon audio

New Testament, Written in Hebrew

New Wine, Old Wineskins

Niddah, Laws of

Noahide Laws audio

Non-profit organizations


Omer Count audio (new)

One New Man (One New Humanity)

Original Order, Books of the Bible


Pagan, Christmas and Easter video


Passover, Eating Lamb audio

Passover, Egg on Seder Plate audio

Passover, Objections to Last Supper audio

Passover, Traditional Seder Meal audio

Paul, Name of

Paul, Opposed or Not Opposed to the Torah (Law) video

Paul, Tentmaker

Philippians 1:23 audio


Preterist Theology

Psychopannychy, growing in adherence audio

Psychopannychy, motivation for belief audio

Psychopannychy, term audio

Public Restaurants, Kosher audio



Rabbi, Title



Resurrection, Sunday

Revelation 22:14

Romans 1:26-27 audio

Romans 10:4 audio/video

Rosh HaShanah audio (new)


Sabbath Dismissal, Mark of the Beast audio

Sabbath, Jewish tradition audio

Sabbath, Originated in Ancient Near Eastern Paganism audio

Sabbath Violation, Alleged by Yeshua audio

Sacrifices, in the Millennium

Scripture Interpretation, Basic Guidelines for

Sensationalism, Messianic

Septuagint (LXX)

Smoking, Tobacco audio

Sukkot audio




Textual Criticism

Thanksgiving Day audio (new)

1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 audio


Torah, Before Mount Sinai (Abraham)

Torah, command not to “Add to”

Torah, division of commandments

Torah Keeping for the Gerim/Sojourners in Ancient Israel audio

Torah, moral and ceremonial law

Torah, only focused on

Torah, Yeshua

Tradition, Role that it plays

Trinity audio

Two-House Teaching video



Unclean Things, Eating audio

Under the Law


Valentine’s Day

Violent Seize Kingdom of God


Women in Ministry

Works of the Law

Wrath, spared from


Yeshua, Divinity of audio


YHWH, Above the Cross

Yom Kippur, Fasting audio (new)


6,000 Year Teaching


ABD: Anchor Bible Dictionary
AMG: Complete Word Study Dictionary: Old Testament, New Testament
ANE: Ancient Near East(ern)
Apostolic Scriptures/Writings: the New Testament
Ara: Aramaic
ASV: American Standard Version (1901)
ATS: ArtScroll Tanach (1996)
b. Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli)
B.C.E.: Before Common Era or B.C.
BDAG: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Bauer, Danker, Arndt, Gingrich)
BDB: Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
BECNT: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
BKCNT: Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament
C.E.: Common Era or A.D.
CEV: Contemporary English Version (1995)
CGEDNT: Concise Greek-English Dictionary of New Testament Words (Barclay M. Newman)
CHALOT: Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament
CJB: Complete Jewish Bible (1998)
DRA: Douay-Rheims American Edition
DSS: Dead Sea Scrolls
ECB: Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible
EDB: Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
eisegesis: “reading meaning into,” or interjecting a preconceived or foreign meaning into a Biblical text
EJ: Encylopaedia Judaica
ESV: English Standard Version (2001)
exegesis: “drawing meaning out of,” or the process of trying to understand what a Biblical text means on its own
EXP: Expositor’s Bible Commentary
Ger: German
GNT: Greek New Testament
Grk: Greek
halachah: lit. “the way to walk,” how the Torah is lived out in an individual’s life or faith community
HALOT: Hebrew & Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Koehler and Baumgartner)
HCSB: Holman Christian Standard Bible (2004)
Heb: Hebrew
HNV: Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible
ICC: International Critical Commentary
IDB: Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible
IDBSup: Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible Supplement
ISBE: International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
IVPBBC: IVP Bible Background Commentary (Old & New Testament)
Jastrow: Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Bavli, Talmud Yerushalmi, and Midrashic Literature
(Marcus Jastrow)
JBK: New Jerusalem Bible-Koren (2000)
JETS: Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society
KJV: King James Version
Lattimore: The New Testament by Richmond Lattimore (1996)
LITV: Literal Translation of the Holy Bible by Jay P. Green (1986)
LS: A Greek-English Lexicon (Liddell & Scott)
LXE: Septuagint with Apocrypha by Sir L.C.L. Brenton (1851)
LXX: Septuagint
m. Mishnah
MT: Masoretic Text
NASB: New American Standard Bible (1977)
NASU: New American Standard Update (1995)
NBCR: New Bible Commentary: Revised
NEB: New English Bible (1970)
Nelson: Nelson’s Expository Dictionary of Old Testament Words
NETS: New English Translation of the Septuagint (2007)
NIB: New Interpreter’s Bible
NIGTC: New International Greek Testament Commentary
NICNT: New International Commentary on the New Testament
NIDB: New International Dictionary of the Bible
NIV: New International Version (1984)
NJB: New Jerusalem Bible-Catholic (1985)
NJPS: Tanakh, A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1999)
NKJV: New King James Version (1982)
NRSV: New Revised Standard Version (1989)
NLT: New Living Translation (1996)
NT: New Testament
orthopraxy: lit. “the right action,” how the Bible or one’s theology is lived out in the world
OT: Old Testament
PME: Practical Messianic Edition (author’s rendering from Practical Messianic commentary series)
PreachC: The Preacher’s Commentary
REB: Revised English Bible (1989)
RSV: Revised Standard Version (1952)
t. Tosefta
Tanach (Tanakh): the Old Testament
Thayer: Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
TDNT: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
TEV: Today’s English Version (1976)
TLV: Messianic Jewish Family Bible—Tree of Life Version (2014)
TNIV: Today’s New International Version (2005)
TNTC: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries
TWOT: Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament
UBSHNT: United Bible Societies’ 1991 Hebrew New Testament revised edition
v(s). verse(s)
Vine: Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words
Vul: Latin Vulgate
WBC: Word Biblical Commentary
Yid: Yiddish
YLT: Young’s Literal Translation (1862/1898)