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Thank you for your interest in Messianic Apologetics. We imagine that some of you have questions in regard to the Messianic movement, the issues of the day, and some of the views expressed on this website. Below are answers to some of questions that we frequently receive.

FAQ entries are listed in alphabetical order.


Abomination of Desolation

Acts 8:27, 36, 38

Acts 15:19-21

Afterlife, negates need for resurrection

Afterlife, negates significance of death


Alef-Tav, Yeshua as the

Annihilationism (eternal punishment)


Antimessiah, Makes or Confirms Agreement

Anti-Semitism, Luther


Apocrypha, Versions of

Aramaic Peshitta




Bible Versions

Bible Versions, Messianic

Biblical Calendar

Biblical Faith, a Judaism

Biblical Festivals

Birth Control

Birth of Yeshua

Body-Brain-Consciousness Interaction

Breath of life, humans and animals

B’rit Chadashah


Calvinist-Arminian Controversy


Chanukah, Actions of Antiochus

Chanukah, Celebrated instead of Sukkot

Chanukah, Eight Days of Oil

Chanukah, Nine-Branched Menorah

Cheese, Kosher

Christianity, Pagan?

Christian Scholars

Christian, Title

Christians who do not keep Torah


Christmas Dinner

Church Fathers

Church, missing after Revelation 4:1

Church, word of pagan origin


Cock/Rooster Crowing

Colossians 2:14

Commonwealth of Israel



Conspiracy Theories

1 Corinthians 6:9-10

1 Corinthians 6:12

1 Corinthians 7:17-24

1 Corinthians 10:23

1 Corinthians 14:34-35

2 Corinthians 5:8





Daniel 3:25

Death, as an unconscious sleep

Death, for Believers

Denying Messiah

Deuteronomy 6:25


DNA Test for Semitic Ancestry

Doctors, and Modern Medicine

Dreams and Visions




Egalitarianism, Leads to an Acceptance of Homosexuality

Ekklēsia/Qahal (English word “church”)

Elements of the World (Galatians 4:3, 9; Colossians 2:8, 20)

End-Times Revival

Ephesians 2:14-15

Ephesians 6:11-17

Eternal life, physically alive forever

Exodus, date of

Exodus, numbers of

Exodus, Pharaoh who did not know Joseph

Exodus, route of


False Prophecy Predictions


Final Generation

Fire Baptism

Fruits and Vegetables, Kosher

Fullness of the Nations


Galatians 3:24, 25

Galatians 5:2-3

Gelatin, Kosher

Genesis 5, 11 Genealogies

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), Kosher

Gentile, Term

Glatt Kosher


God & Lord, Pagan Titles

Good Fish, Bad Fish (Kosher)


Halal Meat (Islam)

Headcovering Garments

Heaven, prayer covering offered by deceased loved ones

Hebrew, Letter Pictures

Hebrew, Pure Language

Hebrew Versus Greek Mindset

Hebrews 9:1-5

Hell, Metaphorical View

Heresy, Heretic

Hour of Testing



Illegal Drugs (Kosher)

Image of God, Human Beings

Image of God, Rulership

Inheritance in the Holy Land, Non-Jews

Isaac, Sacrificed

Isaiah 7:14

Isaiah 24:5


James, Name of

Jashar, Book of

JEDP Hypothesis

Jewish Marriage Analogy

Jots and Tittles



Karaites, Karaite Judaism


Law of Moses, Binding on Christians

Least in the Kingdom

Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees

Leavening Agents

Levirate Marriage

Leviticus 18:5

Liturgy, Hebrew

Lost Sheep of the House of Israel

Luke 16:19-31

Lunar Sabbath


Male Headship

Mark of the Beast

Matthew 10:28

Matthew 16:18-19

Messiah, Confirms the Covenant


Mixed Fibers

Moses, Write the Entire Torah?

Mushrooms, Kosher


Nazarene, Yeshua Called


New Moon

New Testament, Written in Hebrew

New Wine, Old Wineskins

Niddah, Laws of

Noahide Laws

Non-profit organizations


Omer Count

One New Man (One New Humanity)

Original Order, Books of the Bible


Pagan, Christmas and Easter


Passover, Eating Lamb

Passover, Egg on Seder Plate

Passover, Objections to Last Supper

Passover, Traditional Seder Meal

Paul, Name of

Paul, Opposed or Not Opposed to the Torah (Law)

Paul, Tentmaker

Philippians 1:23


Preterist Theology

Psychopannychy, growing in adherence

Psychopannychy, motivation for belief

Psychopannychy, term

Public Restaurants, Kosher



Rabbi, Title



Resurrection, Late Belief

Resurrection, Sunday

Revelation 22:14

Romans 1:26-27

Romans 10:4

Rosh HaShanah


Sabbath Dismissal, Mark of the Beast

Sabbath, Jewish tradition

Sabbath, Originated in Ancient Near Eastern Paganism

Sabbath Violation, Alleged by Yeshua

Sacrifices, in the Millennium

Scripture Interpretation, Basic Guidelines for

Sensationalism, Messianic

Septuagint (LXX)

Smoking, Tobacco





Textual Criticism

Thanksgiving Day

1 Thessalonians 2:14-16


Torah, Before Mount Sinai (Abraham)

Torah, command not to “Add to”

Torah, division of commandments

Torah Keeping for the Gerim/Sojourners in Ancient Israel

Torah, moral and ceremonial law

Torah, only focused on

Torah, Yeshua

Tradition, Role that it plays


Two-House Teaching



Unclean Things, Eating

Under the Law


Valentine’s Day

Violent Seize Kingdom of God


Women in Ministry

Works of the Law

Wrath, spared from


Yeshua, Divinity of


YHWH, Above the Cross

Yom Kippur, Fasting


6,000 Year Teaching


ABD: Anchor Bible Dictionary
AMG: Complete Word Study Dictionary: Old Testament, New Testament
ANE: Ancient Near East(ern)
Apostolic Scriptures/Writings: the New Testament
Ara: Aramaic
ASV: American Standard Version (1901)
ATS: ArtScroll Tanach (1996)
b. Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli)
B.C.E.: Before Common Era or B.C.
BDAG: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Bauer, Danker, Arndt, Gingrich)
BDB: Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
BECNT: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
BKCNT: Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament
C.E.: Common Era or A.D.
CEV: Contemporary English Version (1995)
CGEDNT: Concise Greek-English Dictionary of New Testament Words (Barclay M. Newman)
CHALOT: Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament
CJB: Complete Jewish Bible (1998)
DRA: Douay-Rheims American Edition
DSS: Dead Sea Scrolls
ECB: Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible
EDB: Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible
eisegesis: “reading meaning into,” or interjecting a preconceived or foreign meaning into a Biblical text
EJ: Encylopaedia Judaica
ESV: English Standard Version (2001)
exegesis: “drawing meaning out of,” or the process of trying to understand what a Biblical text means on its own
EXP: Expositor’s Bible Commentary
Ger: German
GNT: Greek New Testament
Grk: Greek
halachah: lit. “the way to walk,” how the Torah is lived out in an individual’s life or faith community
HALOT: Hebrew & Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Koehler and Baumgartner)
HCSB: Holman Christian Standard Bible (2004)
Heb: Hebrew
HNV: Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible
ICC: International Critical Commentary
IDB: Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible
IDBSup: Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible Supplement
ISBE: International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
IVPBBC: IVP Bible Background Commentary (Old & New Testament)
Jastrow: Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Bavli, Talmud Yerushalmi, and Midrashic Literature
(Marcus Jastrow)
JBK: New Jerusalem Bible-Koren (2000)
JETS: Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society
KJV: King James Version
Lattimore: The New Testament by Richmond Lattimore (1996)
LITV: Literal Translation of the Holy Bible by Jay P. Green (1986)
LS: A Greek-English Lexicon (Liddell & Scott)
LXE: Septuagint with Apocrypha by Sir L.C.L. Brenton (1851)
LXX: Septuagint
m. Mishnah
MT: Masoretic Text
NASB: New American Standard Bible (1977)
NASU: New American Standard Update (1995)
NBCR: New Bible Commentary: Revised
NEB: New English Bible (1970)
Nelson: Nelson’s Expository Dictionary of Old Testament Words
NETS: New English Translation of the Septuagint (2007)
NIB: New Interpreter’s Bible
NIGTC: New International Greek Testament Commentary
NICNT: New International Commentary on the New Testament
NIDB: New International Dictionary of the Bible
NIV: New International Version (1984)
NJB: New Jerusalem Bible-Catholic (1985)
NJPS: Tanakh, A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures (1999)
NKJV: New King James Version (1982)
NRSV: New Revised Standard Version (1989)
NLT: New Living Translation (1996)
NT: New Testament
orthopraxy: lit. “the right action,” how the Bible or one’s theology is lived out in the world
OT: Old Testament
PME: Practical Messianic Edition of the Holy Scriptures
PreachC: The Preacher’s Commentary
REB: Revised English Bible (1989)
RSV: Revised Standard Version (1952)
t. Tosefta
Tanach (Tanakh): the Old Testament
Thayer: Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
TDNT: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
TEV: Today’s English Version (1976)
TLV: Messianic Jewish Family Bible—Tree of Life Version (2014)
TNIV: Today’s New International Version (2005)
TNTC: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries
TWOT: Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament
UBSHNT: United Bible Societies’ 1991 Hebrew New Testament revised edition
v(s). verse(s)
Vine: Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words
Vul: Latin Vulgate
WBC: Word Biblical Commentary
Yid: Yiddish
YLT: Young’s Literal Translation (1862/1898)