Hebrew

Composition of the Tanach (OT)

27 January, 2017 messianicapologetics 0

TORAH Genesis posted 10 October, 2016 Exodus posted 11 October, 2016 Leviticus posted 13 October, 2016 Numbers posted 14 October, 2016 Deuteronomy posted 17 October, 2016 NEVI’IM (PROPHETS) Joshua posted 18 October, 2016 Judges posted 20 October, 2016 Samuel posted 21 October, 2016 Kings posted 24 October, 2016 Isaiah posted 25 October, 2016 Jeremiah posted 26 October, 2016 Ezekiel posted 26 October, 2016 Hosea posted 31 October, 2016 Joel posted 01 November, 2016 Amos posted 02 November, 2016 Obadiah posted 03 November, 2016 Jonah posted 04 November, 2016 Micah posted 06 November, 2016 Nahum posted 07 November, 2016 Habakkuk posted […]

Bible Study

Tanach (OT) Survey

11 January, 2017 messianicapologetics 0

One of the major reasons that today’s Messianic movement has grown in the past decade is a significant interest by Believers in the Torah and the Tanach. In too many cases, the Tanach Scriptures were not probed in that great a detail in a Jewish Believer’s traditional Synagogue upbringing—and perhaps more serious, a non-Jewish Believer’s Christian experience often witnessed the Old Testament taking a back seat to the New Testament in the Church. With many of the ethical and moral controversies the greater Judeo-Christian religious community is experiencing in our age, a need for God’s people to return to a […]

FAQ

YHWH, Above the Cross

27 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 24 FEBRUARY, 2010 I heard a Messianic teacher say that the Divine Name YHWH was spelled out on the writing above Yeshua’s cross? Is this true? The Scriptures that are often made light of concerning this belief include Matthew 27:37, “And above His head they put up the charge against Him which read, ‘This is Yeshua the king of the Jews,’” and John 19:19, “Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It was written, ‘Yeshua the Nazarene, the king of the Jews’” (cf. Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38). What we know for certain from the Gospels […]

Ancient Israel

Torah Keeping for the Gerim/Sojourners in Ancient Israel

27 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 JUNE, 2010 How much of Torah were the gerim/sojourners expected to keep, when compared to the natives of Israel? The sojourner or ger[1] (also commonly rendered as “alien” or “foreigner” in various English Bibles), the plural being gerim, was an outsider who entered into the community of Ancient Israel, and was certainly of a different class than a foreign worker or mere passer-by. The ger was one who acknowledged Israel’s God, repudiated idolatry, but had no inheritance in the Promised Land. Perhaps one of the most well known gerim was Ruth the Moabitess, who is classicly known for […]

FAQ

Paul, Name of

27 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 07 AUGUST, 2010 Why do you call Rav Shaul the Apostle Paul? Paul, or Paulos, as it appears in the Greek, is the name that the Apostle most frequently calls himself in his letters. Shaul or “Saul” was the original name given to this Jew who was born in the city of Tarsus. Like many Jews of the First Century, he was given two names: one Hebrew or Aramaic, and then another Greek or Latin. This is plainly attested by Acts 13:9 which speaks of “Saul, who was also known as Paul” (NASU). It is not incorrect to refer […]

FAQ

New Testament, Written in Hebrew

26 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 23 AUGUST, 2011 Do you believe that the New Testament was originally written in Hebrew? It seems that many within today’s Messianic movement believe the New Testament was written in Hebrew, but they lack substantial proof for this. The following entry has been adapted from the editor’s article, “The Top Ten Urban Myths of Today’s Messianic Movement” There has been a great deal of misinformation circulating throughout the broad Messianic movement that relates to the composition of the Bible, particularly the Apostolic Scriptures or the New Testament. Asserting that the Apostolic Scriptures were written in Hebrew, when no extant […]

FAQ

Liturgy, Hebrew

25 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 22 OCTOBER, 2008 What do you think about the use of Hebrew liturgy in Messianic congregations? There are generally two extremes that one encounters among Messianic congregations as it relates to Hebrew liturgy: (1) those who rely on liturgy exclusively, and (2) those who see no value in liturgy at all. Those who rely on liturgy exclusively for prayers and worship are those that often embrace a strictly Orthodox Jewish style of halachah, whereas those who often see no value in liturgy are largely influenced by charismatic and/or Pentecostal Christianity. Any cursory examination of Second Temple Judaism will reveal […]

FAQ

Jots and Tittles

23 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 05 SEPTEMBER, 2011 I heard a Messianic teaching that dealt with “jots and tittles” in the Hebrew text of the Bible. It claimed that these markings were written by Moses, and that Yeshua actually referred to them in Matthew 5:17-19. Is there any validity to this teaching? In the Hebrew texts of the Scriptures that exist today, there are various notation marks above, to the side of, or underneath various words and letters. There are some Messianic teachers[1] who believe that these marks are what Yeshua was referring to, when He said that “not the smallest letter or stroke […]

FAQ

Jesus, Pagan Name

22 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

POSED 23 AUGUST, 2011 I have encountered many, many Messianic people who claim that the English name “Jesus” is of pagan origins. Does this have any substantial basis to it? I am an intelligent person, and I do know that the Messiah did not speak English, and that “Jesus” is not what He was originally called. The following entry has been adapted from the editor’s article, “Sacred Name Concerns” There is some controversy across parts of the Messianic movement, surrounding the name that history and the majority of English speaking people know Him by: Jesus Christ. Most Sacred Name Only […]

FAQ

JEDP Hypothesis

22 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 21 OCTOBER, 2008 What do I do when I encounter the JEDP documentary hypothesis in various books and materials? I am confused about what to do. The JEDP documentary hypothesis has been around since the 1860s, primarily accredited to the publication of Julius Wellhausen’s book Prolegomena to the History of Israel. As Messianic Biblical Studies improves, being aware of it more and more, and the affects that it has had in the interpretation of various parts of the Torah, will come into focus. The 2004 Jewish Study Bible (Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press)—which […]

FAQ

Hebrew Versus Greek Mindset

13 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 2

UPDATED 08 JUNE, 2006 I saw a teaching that discussed the “Hebrew versus Greek mindset.” What does this mean? There has been some teaching going around the Messianic community on the subject of the “Hebrew versus Greek mindset,” and unfortunately as we have observed there is usually a vague definition of both sets of thinking and some people get the impression that when “Greek thinking” is demeaned that likewise the inspiration of the Greek New Testament is demeaned. As these teachings vary, we find it very difficult to pinpoint an exact answer for the reader. The most serious concern we […]

FAQ

Hebrew, Pure Language

11 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 10 AUGUST, 2011 I heard a Messianic teacher call Hebrew the “pure language.” Can this at all be substantiated? He used this to discredit the inspiration of the Greek New Testament. It is not uncommon at all for many in today’s Messianic movement to perceive of the Hebrew language as being the “holy tongue” or some kind of “pure language.” This is based on a misunderstanding of Zephaniah 3:9, where the Prophet says “I will give to the peoples purified lips” or safar berurah. To assume that this means that the peoples will be given an ability to speak […]

FAQ

Hebrew, Letter Pictures

11 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 7

UPDATED 08 AUGUST, 2011 Is there any academic validity with Hebrew letter pictures, i.e., interpreting various Hebrew words through the representations of each letter in its spelling? The idea that the ancient Hebrew language contains pictograms, which communicate certain spiritual and theological messages, has been largely popularized by the widespread circulation of the publication Hebrew Word Pictures: How Does the Hebrew Alphabet Reveal Prophetic Truths? (Phoenix: Living Word Pictures, 1994) by Frank T. Seekins. There is hardly a Messianic congregation that has not been touched, to some degree, by Seekins’ book. Its author makes the claim, “You don’t have to […]

Biblical Practices & Torah Observance

Torah As Constitution

1 November, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

revised edition posted 07 August, 2005 reproduced from the Messianic Torah Helper In our generation, we have witnessed a profound growth and expansion of the Messianic movement. Not only have many Jewish people come to a saving knowledge of Yeshua the Messiah, but many non-Jewish Believers have embraced the richness of their Hebraic Roots and heritage in Israel. Many Believers are undeniably awakening to the deep truths of the Torah. Each of us must be disciplined in our Bible study as we apply the Torah’s mitzvot or commandments to our lives. We must seek to have a healthy reading of […]

FAQ

Ekklesia/Qahal (English word “church”)

31 October, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 07 SEPTEMBER, 2011 I have heard that there really is no such thing as “the Church” in Scripture, and that the Hebrew and Greek terms used in the Bible can support this. Can you help me with this issue? Some form of this summary appears in a wide array of articles and publications by Outreach Israel Ministries and Messianic Apologetics In the Apostolic Scriptures no reader can deny how ekklēsia is used as a term to define the Body of Messiah, and so by extension it is rendered as “church” in most English translations of the New Testament. But […]

Books & Studies

The Hebrew New Testament Misunderstanding

28 September, 2016 messianicapologetics 0

Over the years, Outreach Israel Ministries and Messianic Apologetics have had to field the question, Do you believe that the New Testament was originally written in Hebrew? many, many times. Given the complicated spiritual and theological dynamics present within the Messianic movement—one has to really have some courage to say, No, we do not believe that the New Testament was originally written in Hebrew. There is, to be sure, no Hebrew New Testament document or fragment of any kind from the broad Biblical period. This stands in stark contrast to the fact that the Greek New Testament, and fragments of […]

Books & Studies

English Bible Versions and Today’s Messianic Movement

27 September, 2016 messianicapologetics 0

What English Bible version should you use as as a contemporary Believer? This is a topic that can not only be rather confusing, but is something that can also evoke some rather strong emotions. Very few English Bible readers, who are committed to a steadfast faith in God, ever stick with one single Bible version or translation to employ in their studies. At the same time, though, it might also be said that various Bible readers can get a bit too comfortable examining a particular version, because they just get too familiar with it, or they are too stuck reading […]

FAQ

Cock/Rooster Crowing

22 September, 2016 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 01 JULY, 2014 I heard a Messianic teaching which advocated that it was not a “cock” or “rooster” crowing, which was supposed to make a noise after Peter denied Yeshua, but rather a Temple-crier functioning in his duties. This was used to support an original Hebrew New Testament. Can you help me with this? The reference to a cock or rooster crowing, in association with Peter’s denial of Yeshua, appears in all four Gospels: “And Yeshua said to him, ‘Truly I say to you, that this very night, before a rooster crows twice, you yourself will deny Me three […]

Biblical Studies & Scriptural Reliability

Is the Hebrew Matthew an Authentic Document?

7 September, 2016 J.K. McKee 6

originally posted 10 May, 2013 reproduced from the Messianic Torah Helper Among all of the texts of the Apostolic Scriptures or New Testament, today’s broad Messianic movement has some significant struggles when it comes to the composition of the Gospel of Matthew. There are various reasons for this, perhaps including Matthew’s length, the obvious connections and comparisons to be made between Matthew’s message and Second Temple Judaism, but above all this surrounds the original language in which Matthew was written. There is an attestation from ancient Christian history, that there was likely some kind of Hebrew material involved in the […]

Books & Studies

A Survey of the Tanach for the Practical Messianic

2 September, 2016 messianicapologetics 0

One of the major reasons that today’s Messianic movement has grown in the past decade is a significant interest by Believers in the Torah and the Tanach. In too many cases, the Tanach Scriptures were not probed in that great a detail in a Jewish Believer’s traditional Synagogue upbringing—and perhaps more serious, a non-Jewish Believer’s Christian experience often witnessed the Old Testament taking a back seat to the New Testament in the Church. With many of the ethical and moral controversies the greater Judeo-Christian religious community is experiencing in our age, a need for God’s people to return to a […]

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