About J.K. McKee
J.K. McKee (B.A., University of Oklahoma; M.A., Asbury Theological Seminary) is the editor of Messianic Apologetics (www.messianicapologetics.net), a division of Outreach Israel Ministries (www.outreachisrael.net). He is a 2009 recipient of the Zondervan Biblical Languages Award for Greek. He is author of numerous books and commentaries, dealing with a wide range of topics that are important for today’s Messianic Believers.
FAQ

Dualism

26 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 1

POSTED 29 MARCH, 2011 Is it not true that the idea of an intermediate afterlife in Heaven or Hell is predicated on dualism? Is it not true that dualism was a philosophical view that originated with the Greeks, and not with Scripture? In much of today’s Messianic community, is it very easy for a leader or teacher to claim that a theological idea—particularly an accepted tenet of mainstream Christianity—is somehow “Hellenistic” or “Greek,” and simply by saying this people will reject it. What will often follow on the part of an audience is no critical thinking or analysis, but just […]

FAQ

Dictionaries/Lexicons

26 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 16 NOVEMBER, 2006 Can you recommend any specific Hebrew and Greek dictionaries or lexicons I can use in my Bible studies? There are many varied Hebrew and Greek lexicons available, some of them are excellent, others are good, and then some are substandard. As a lay person, there are some which we recommend that you have that can be fairly easy to use without extensive Hebrew or Greek training. Two widely available Hebrew and Greek dictionaries, that you should have in your library, are Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (BDB) and Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Thayer). […]

Christology

Genesis 18:1-33

25 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 25 JULY, 2017 reproduced from Salvation on the Line: The Nature of Yeshua and His Divinity “Now the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day. When he lifted up his eyes and looked, behold, three men were standing opposite him; and when he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth, and said, ‘My lord, if now I have found favor in your sight, please do not pass your servant by. Please let a little […]

Appointed Times

Does the New Testament Annul the Biblical Appointments?

25 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

originally posted 28 September, 2005 reproduced from Moedim: The Appointed Times for Messianic Believers We as Messianic Believers need to lament over the fact that most of our Christian brothers and sisters do not honor and observe our Heavenly Father’s appointed times[1] or moedim,[2] listed in Leviticus 23. Instead of remembering Pesach/Passover, Chag HaMatzot/Unleavened Bread, Shavuot/Pentecost, Yom Teruah-Rosh HaShanah/the Feast of Trumpets, Yom Kippur/the Day of Atonement, Sukkot/Tabernacles, and Shemini Atzeret/the Eighth Day Assembly, in addition to the weekly seventh-day Shabbat/Sabbath—Christians today celebrate Christmas and Easter and assemble on Sunday. They have missed out on much of what the Lord […]

Christology

Genesis 16:7-13

19 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 19 JULY, 2017 reproduced from Salvation on the Line: The Nature of Yeshua and His Divinity “Now the angel of the LORD found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. He said, ‘Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from and where are you going?’ And she said, ‘I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.’ Then the angel of the LORD said to her, ‘Return to your mistress, and submit yourself to her authority.’ Moreover, the angel of the LORD said to her, ‘I will greatly multiply […]

Appointed Times

What Are The Lord’s Appointed Times?

19 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

posted 28 September, 2005 reproduced from Moedim: The Appointed Times for Messianic Believers One of the first areas of Torah observance which comes into play, when outside people enter into the Messianic movement and commit themselves to a Messianic lifestyle, is that of the holidays. The appointed times guide the yearly cycle of events which help to form Messianic identity.[1] The appointed times guide the yearly cycle of events that help to form Messianic identity. Messianic Believers do not observe mainstream Christian holidays such as Christmas or Easter, but rather remember the Biblically-prescribed holidays of God’s Torah, which are first […]

Christology

Genesis 1:26-28; 3:22-23; 11:7-8

18 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 18 JULY, 2017 reproduced from Salvation on the Line: The Nature of Yeshua and His Divinity “Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. God blessed them; and God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and […]

1 Corinthians

First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians

14 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: 52-55 C.E. Time period: season of extreme growing pains for the Corinthian congregation, in the midst of idolatry, immorality, and factionalism Author: the Apostle Paul Location of author: Ephesus/Asia Minor Target audience and their location: Jewish and non-Jewish Believers in Corinth Theological Summary: There is largely no controversy among either conservative or liberal interpreters that the Apostle Paul is the author of the first Epistle to the Corinthians. Paul is plainly identified as being the author in the text (1:1-2; 16:21), even […]

Romans

Epistle of Paul to the Romans

13 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: 56-58 C.E. Time period: transition of Paul’s ministry work from the Eastern to Western Mediterranean Author: the Apostle Paul with Tertius (secretary) Location of author: Corinth/Achaia or Cenchrea Target audience and their location: Jewish and non-Jewish Believers in Rome Theological Summary: All ancient authorities are agreed that the Apostle Paul wrote the Epistle to the Romans, as there were no disputes in early Christian history made about the authorship of this letter. The affirmation of genuine Pauline authorship continues until today, even […]

Hebrews

Epistle to the Hebrews

12 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: 64-70 C.E. Time period: immediately prior to, or during, the Jewish revolt in the Land of Israel Author: unknown, but often favored to be Barnabas or Apollos (and/or Priscilla) Location of author: the Jewish Diaspora, probably Corinth or Italy Target audience and their location: primarily the Jewish Diaspora, probably Rome, Alexandria, Eastern Mediterranean Theological Summary: The overwhelming theme of the Epistle to the Hebrews is the superiority of Yeshua’s sacrifice and blood atonement, when compared to the previous order of animal sacrifices […]

Galatians

Epistle of Paul to the Galatians

11 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: 48-49 C.E. or 50-52 C.E. Time period: season of great confusion among many new non-Jewish Believers, and their integration into the community of faith Author: the Apostle Paul Location of author: Macedonia, Ephesus, or Antioch Target audience and their location: mostly non-Jewish Believers in the province/region of Galatia Theological Summary: Genuine Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Galatians is something that all conservative and liberal examiners today accept. The message of Galatians, the exact audience of the Galatians, and some of […]

Ecclesiastes

Book of Ecclesiastes

10 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 24 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Tanach for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: 900s B.C.E. (Right); 900s B.C.E. for composition of source material, 715-686 B.C.E. for redactions (conservative-moderate); 500s-300s B.C.E. (Left) Purpose: to explain the common futility of human life Author: Solomon (Right, some conservative-moderate); “Qohelet” (some conservative-moderate, Left) Location of author: Land of Israel or Jerusalem (Right, conservative-moderate); Land of Israel, Jerusalem, and/or Babylon (Left) Target audience and their location: people of Israel, later people of Judah (Right, conservative-moderate); Southern Kingdom returning or returned from Babylon (Left) Theological Summary: The Book of Ecclesiastes is one […]

John

Gospel of John

7 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: mid-to-late 80s C.E. Time period: need to establish a doctrinal Gospel independent of the Synoptics (Mark, Matthew, Luke), focused on the relationship of Yeshua the Son to God the Father, and Yeshua to His Disciples and followers Author: the Apostle John Location of author: Ephesus Target audience and their location: largely non-Jewish Believers in Asia Minor, and eventually throughout the Roman Empire Theological Summary: The Gospel of John definitely stands out among the four Gospels, and certainly has a special place in […]

Acts

Book of Acts

6 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: after the Gospel of Luke, 60-62 C.E., late 60s C.E., or 70s-80s C.E. Time period: establishment of a more definitive history of the expansion of the gospel in the ancient world Author: Luke the doctor Location of author: Rome Target audience and their location: Theophilus, and broad groups of Jews, Greeks, and Romans Theological Summary: The Acts of the Apostles, the Greek title of which is Praxeis or “Actions,” is the second book in a set written to Theophilus (1:1). While in […]

Luke

Gospel of Luke

5 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: late 50s to early 60s; or late 70s to early 80s Time period: establishment of a more definitive history of the ministry and teachings of Yeshua Author: Luke the doctor Location of author: Rome or Achaia Target audience and their location: Theophilus, and broad groups of Jews, Greeks, and Romans Theological Summary: The Gospel of Luke is the longest of the four Gospels, and is also the largest text within the Apostolic Scriptures. The Third Gospel is extremely thorough in its scope […]

Matthew

Gospel of Matthew

4 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 27 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: early-to-mid 70s C.E., possibly into the 80s C.E. Time period: the conception/birth of Yeshua to the ascension of Yeshua Author: Matthew the disciple Location of author: Phoenicia, Transjordan, Alexandria, Syrian Antioch (all debated) Target audience and their location: the Jewish Diaspora, possibly Antioch Theological Summary: While Matthew is canonically listed as the first of the Gospels in the Apostolic Scriptures, there are a significantly large number of scholars and theologians who do not think that it was the first Gospel compiled. Yet, […]

Mark

Gospel of Mark

3 July, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 26 NOVEMBER, 2016 reproduced from A Survey of the Apostolic Scriptures for the Practical Messianic Approximate date: late 50s or early 60s C.E. Time period: the ministry of John the Immerser to the ascension of Yeshua Author: John Mark, secretary of the Apostle Peter Location of author: Rome Target audience and their location: predominantly Roman, later Alexandrian Theological Summary: In past theological history, the Gospel of Mark was often thought to have only been a kind of abridgment of the Gospel of Matthew, and so it was not given a huge amount of examination, or even in some cases […]

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians 6:12-20

28 June, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 07 JUNE, 2017 reproduced from The New Testament Validates Torah MAXIMUM EDITION Pastor: 1 Corinthians 6:12-20: All things are now lawful. “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything. Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body. Now God has not only raised the Lord, but will also raise us up […]

Romans

Romans 10:4

28 June, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

UPDATED 07 JUNE, 2017 reproduced from The New Testament Validates Torah MAXIMUM EDITION Pastor: Romans 10:4: Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. “For Messiah is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.” Many people read Romans 10:4, as it appears in most English Bible versions, and view it as being definitive evidence that the Torah is no longer relevant to be followed.[1] The claim that “Christ is the end of the law…” is quite frequent in discussion between Christians, Messianics, and Jews relating to the position that the Law […]

John

John 13:34

27 June, 2017 J.K. McKee 0

POSTED 07 JUNE, 2017 reproduced from The New Testament Validates Torah MAXIMUM EDITION Pastor: John 13:34: Jesus Christ gave us a new law of love to replace the laws of the Old Testament. “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another.” Many people can be caught completely off guard, or not quite know how to react, when various Christian teachers or pastors communicate that the Messiah came to give a new law, a law that is only of “love.” The challenge is not with […]

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